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This handout is a terse guide to legal citation in the USA. The generally accepted style manual for legal citations in the USA is the Bluebook: Opinions of some courts use a different format from the Bluebook, but these alternative citation formats contains the same information.
Furthermore, the proper format according to the Bluebook changes with time, so old sources both cases and law review articles do not use the modern format for citation.
Government publishes each statute enacted by the U. Except for doing historical research, a more convenient way to access federal statutes is to use the U. Code, which groups the original statute and all subsequent amendments together in one place.
This Code is divided into fifty "titles": Each "title" may fill multiple volumes on a bookshelf.
The regulations issued by agencies of the federal government, in order to implement law expressed in the statutes, is published in the Code of Federal Regulations.
In addition, each state has its own collection of statutes and regulations. In contrast, statutes of other states are irrelevant, because the only statutes that apply are the statutes in the state whose law is being applied.
However, occasionally judges look to court opinions from other states in interpreting a word or phrase in a statute. Reports that contains the official version of all of the opinions of the U. Supreme Court Reporter that contains all of the opinions of the U.
Supreme Court since Reports appears, and so is useful for citing recent Supreme Court cases. Federal Reporter contains all of the published opinions of the U.
Courts of Appeals, plus the few published opinions of Federal District Courts from to Federal Supplement contains published opinions after of Federal District Courts, which are trial courts.
A few observations on the West regional reporter system: The Pacific Reporter was begun inwhen there was little legal activity in the 13 western states in the USA, plus Alaska and Hawaii, so it made sense then to bundle all of those states into one Reporter.
These regional reporters generally only contain published opinions of the state appellate courts, not state trial courts. In fact, it is rare to see a published opinion of a trial court in the USA, because such opinions have no precedential value. However, a few decisions of trial courts in the USA are published: Pennsylvania publishes a separate reporter, called Pennsylvania District and County Cases abbreviated: Beware of this misleading nomenclature!
In the federal courts, the Courts of Appeals are intermediate courts, between the trial courts and the U. In most states, the Superior Court is a trial court, which handles larger cases than the ordinary trial court.
However, the Pennsylvania Superior Court is an intermediate appellate court, between the trial courts and the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. A law library will typically have the official state reporter of the state in which the library is located, but not the official state reporters of distant states.Welcome to Cite This for Me About Cite This For Me.
Cite This For Me is one of the most popular citation tools today. Launched in October , we began with the mission of helping students create perfect citations in a fraction of the time. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing) - Kindle edition by Kate L.
Turabian, Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, University of Chicago Press Staff. Download it once and read it on .
Scientific Style and Format presents three systems for referring to references (also known as citations) within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication: 1) citation–sequence; 2) name–year; and 3) citation–name.
These abbreviated references are called in-text references. 1.
Sources of Legal Materials in USA Statutes and Regulations in the USA The U.S. Government publishes each statute enacted by the U.S. Congress in U.S. Statutes at Large. Except for doing historical research, a more convenient way to access federal statutes is to use the U.S.
Code, which groups the original statute and all subsequent . Guides for Citing Sources. American Psychological Association (APA) citation style from the Purdue OWL; Modern Language Association (MLA) citation style from the Purdue OWL; Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) online.
In each tab, you will find descriptions of each citation style featured in this guide along with links to online resources for citing and a few examples.
What is a citation and citation style? A citation is a way of giving credit to individuals for their creative and intellectual works that you utilized to support your research.