Columbia University The federal government of the United States was created by the Constitution, which went into operation in when the first Congress convened and George Washington took the oath of office as president. The government is called federal because it was formed by a compact the Constitution among 13 political units the states. These states agreed to give up part of their independence, or sovereignty, in order to form a central authority and submit themselves to it. Thus, what was essentially a group of 13 separate countries under the Articles of Confederation united to form one nation under the Constitution When the Declaration of Independence was issued init used the term United States of America.
History[ edit ] The area along the Arkansas River had been inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples of various cultures. They used the river for transportation as did European settlers after them, and for fishing. By the time of encounter with Europeans, the historical Quapaw were the chief people in the area, having migrated from the Ohio River valley centuries before.
In Thomas Phillips claimed a half section of land where Pine Bluff is located. Jefferson County was established by the Territorial Legislature on November 2, and began functioning as a county April 19, At the August 13, county election, the pine bluff settlement was chosen as the county seat.
At the time, the village had about 50 residents. Improved transportation aided in the growth of Pine Bluff during the s and s.
With its proximity to the Arkansas River, the small town served as a port for travel and shipping. Steamships provided the primary mode of transport, arriving from downriver ports such as New Orleans.
They included the legendary Black Seminole leader John Horsewho arrived in the city via the steamboat Swan in This was cultivated on large plantations by hundreds and thousands of enslaved Africans throughout the state, but especially in the Delta.
The city had one of the largest slave populations in the state by and Jefferson County, Arkansas was second in cotton production in the state. Marmaduke tried to expel the Union Army in the Battle of Pine Bluff October 25,but was repulsed by a combined effort of soldiers and freedmen former slaves freed by the Emancipation Proclamation.
It was dispatched to guard Pine Bluff and was eventually mustered out there. The Union forces set up a contraband camp there to house the runaway slaves and refugees behind Confederate lines.
Both adults and children eagerly started learning. By SeptemberProfessor Joseph C. Founded as Arkansas's first black public college, today it is the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. Pine Bluff and the region suffered lasting effects from defeat, the aftermath of war, and the trauma of slavery and exploitation.
Recovery was slow at first. Construction of railroads improved access to markets, and with increased production of cotton as more plantations were reactivated, the economy began to recover. The first railroad reached Pine Bluff in December The state's economy remained highly dependent on cotton and agriculture, which suffered a decline through the 19th century.
As personal fortunes increased from the s onward, community leaders constructed large Victorian -style homes west of Main Street. Meanwhile, the Reconstruction era of the s brought a stark mix of progress and challenge for African Americans.
Most blacks joined the Republican Party, and several were elected in Pine Bluff to county offices and the state legislature for the first time in history. Several black-owned businesses were also opened, including banks, bars, barbershops, and other establishments.
But in postwar violence inan altercation with whites ensued at a refugee camp, and 24 black men, women and children were found hanging from trees in one of the worst mass lynchings in U.The workforce is changing as businesses become global and technology erodes geographical and physical regardbouddhiste.com organizations are critical to enabling this transition and can utilize next-generation tools and strategies to provide world-class support regardless of location, platform or device.
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