During the Early Enlightenment ca. During the Late Enlightenment ca.
Frederick II, the Great, of Prussia —86 Germany, or more exactly the old Holy Roman Empirein the 18th century entered a period of decline that would finally lead to the dissolution of the Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.
Since the Peace of Westphalia inthe Empire had been fragmented into numerous independent states Kleinstaaterei. From toKing Frederick William Ialso known as the "Soldier King", established a highly centralized state.
The term German dualism describes the long conflict between the two largest German states Austria and Prussia from to when Prussia finally forced Austria out of the German Confederation. The Kingdom of Prussia emerged as the leading state of the Empire.
Since there was only one King of the Germans within the Empire, Frederick gained the assent of Emperor Leopold I in return for alliance against France in the War of the Spanish Succession to his adoption January of the title of " King in Prussia " based on his non-imperial territories.
The title came into general acceptance with the Treaty of Utrecht The Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg had held the reversion to the Duchy of Pomerania since During this time, the trends set in motion by the Great Elector reached their culmination, as the Junkersthe landed aristocracywere welded to the Prussian Army.
Using the pretext of a treaty vetoed by Emperor Ferdinand Iby which parts of Silesia were to pass to Brandenburg after the extinction of its ruling Piast dynastyFrederick invaded Silesia, thereby beginning the War of the Austrian Succession — InFrederick invaded again to forestall reprisals and to claim, this time, the province of Bohemia.
The situation became progressively grimmer until the death of Empress Elizabeth of Russia the miracle of the House of Brandenburg. This gave the start to the rivalry between Prussia and Austria for the leadership of Germanyreferred to as German dualism. Including All the States Comprehended Under that Name with the Kingdom of Prussia, CE Fromagainst resistance from the nobility and citizenry, an " enlightened absolutism " was established in Prussia and Austria, according to which the ruler was to be "the first servant of the state".
The economy developed and legal reforms were undertaken, including the abolition of torture and the improvement in the status of Jews ; the emancipation of the peasants began.
In —95, Prussia took part in the partitions of Polandoccupying western territories of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealthwhich led to centuries of Polish resistance against German rule and persecution. To the east and south of Prussia, the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth had gradually weakened during the 18th century.
Frederick took part in the first of the partitions of Poland, between Russia, Prussia, and Austria in The Kingdom of Prussia annexed most of the Polish province of Royal Prussiaincluding Warmia ; the annexed land was organized the following year into the Province of West Prussia.
After Frederick died inhis nephew Fredrick William II continued the partitions, gaining a large part of western Poland in Inthe Kingdom of Poland ceased to exist and a large area including Warsaw to the south of East Prussia became part of Prussia.
The French Revolution sparked a new war between France and several of its Eastern neighbors, including Prussia and Austria. Napoleon I of France relaunched the war against the Empire.
Inunder the " Reichsdeputationshauptschluss " a resolution of a committee of the Eternal Imperial Diet meeting in Regensburghe abolished almost all the ecclesiastical and the smaller secular states and most of the imperial free cities. New medium-sized states were established in south-western Germany.
In turn, Prussia gained territory in north-western Germany. Politics[ edit ] AfterPrussia became a European great power.Feb 22, · Ten Minute History - German Unification and Empire (Short Documentary) covers the rise of Prussia after the Napoleonic Wars through the unification of Germany in and to its defeat in the.
HISTORY OF PRUSSIA including The Prussian machine, The philosopher king, Frederick and Silesia, Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, Prussian tactics, Sequel in Silesia, Prussian stalemate and reprieve, Peace and treaties, Prussia reformed, Three partitions of Poland.
History of Early Modern Europe Introduction Timeline. Timeline of Early Modern Europe; (in terms of troops, resources, and geographic extent) grew steadily. On the positive side, the Early Modern age witnessed the rise of a large middle class (e.g.
merchants, artisans, Russia and Prussia. The history of Russia began ca. History of Europe - Prussia: Frederick II had inherited a style of absolute government that owed much to the peculiar circumstances of Brandenburg-Prussia as it emerged from the Thirty Years’ War.
Lacking natural frontiers and war-ravaged when Frederick William inherited the electorate in , Brandenburg had little more than the prestige of the ancient house of Hohenzollern. Prussia did not disappear when the German Empire was created in ; instead, it survived as a distinct entity until the aftermath of World War Two.
MacDonogh's book examines Prussia as it existed under the new Imperial ideals, tracking the changes in society and culture.
Jan 31, · This video shows Austria and Prussia/Germany from medieval times up to the present every year. Monarchs and capitals are also shown. Credits for music are at the end of the video.