Blog Intellectual or Academic Development? My grandmother, now 85 years old, is a holistic educator. She works even today, tirelessly, and touches the lives of teachers and their students. She has been a grand influence in my growth as an educator.
Paul Getty Trust and author of God: As more and more colleges and universities adopt the market model, providing students not what tradition says they need but what the students themselves say they want, the liberal arts are being squeezed out of the curriculum. A recent article in Harvard magazine contains the following instructive paragraph: Between andthe number of B.
Among all bachelor's degrees in higher education, three majors increased five- to tenfold: Two majors, already large, tripled: Already popular, business management doubled.
In78 percent more degrees were granted in business than English.
Bybusiness enjoyed a fourfold advantage over English and remained the largest major. English, foreign languages, philosophy, and religion all declined. On the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test, only 9 percent of students now indicate interest in humanities.
The authors of this article, English professors both, offer their statistics as a call to educational reform, to a revival of the liberal arts.
The Academic Labor Question Distinct from but related to the decline of the liberal arts on campus is the deprofessionalization or proletarianization of college teaching. In the academic labor market as elsewhere in the American labor market, the goal of management is, increasingly, to keep the number of permanent, salaried employees as small as possible by transferring as much of the aggregate workload as possible to temporary employees who are paid on a fee-for-service basis and receive few if any of the costly benefits provided their salaried colleagues.
Writing in New The Republic, Michael Walzer has noted that a recent, notably successful United Parcel Service strike was not a conventional strike for higher wages but rather collective resistance to the planned transformation of the UPS work force from one of full-time workers with salaries, job security, and benefits into one of part-time workers with no one of the three.
It is now possible to imagine an economy in which the American workforce will be divided into a full-time elite and a large number of harried, unhappy and exploited workers rushing from one part-time or temporary job to another, always insecure, barely able to make ends meet.
Maximum efficiency requires, so the world was told in and again inthough not in so many words, disposable workers -- men and women who will work long hours or short, "as necessary," and disappear without complaint when the necessities change.
Paul Getty Trust -- estimates that more than fifty percent of all class hours in higher education in California, private as well as public, are taught by such disposable academic workers. We cannot emphasize strongly enough that, were it not for the radical increase in part-time faculty positions, there would be no oversupply of Ph.
Indeed, if all college and university teaching were performed by full-time faculty members who held doctoral degrees, we would be facing the undersupply of Ph. Ironically, it was their predictions, widely disseminated in the popular media, that led so many current graduate students and new Ph.
Tenured faculty, the aristocracy of the university, have been disgracefully complicit in the creation of an academic helot class to subsidize their own upper-middle-class salaries, but the helots are progressively replacing the aristocrats as the latter retire and are replaced by helots rather than by other aristocrats.
What is being phased out, in short, is the very career which tenured faculty once enjoyed and to which new Ph. For a while to come, some of the many aspiring professors who enter the academic labor market each year will find tenure-track positions and be awarded tenure in due course.
More, however, will fail to obtain tenure or even to be hired for a tenure-track position. Barring a labor movement of unprecedented scope, the less talented among them will then sink into academe's permanent underclass, while the more talented will leave academe and seek other employment.
If half a conservative estimate of all humanities Ph. These off-campus humanists may become, in other words, the default carrier of the liberal tradition. The phrase free lance is an interesting one to recall in this connection.
Its opposite, never used, is paid lance or soldier, ultimately from the Italian soldiere, meaning one who receives soldi, that is, a salary. In the American academic context, three questions abut one another when we ask where and how academics displaced into the general labor market -- soldiers become free lances -- might succeed the academic institutions that think about them so little.
First, will free-lance writers and thinkers unsalaried by any college or university ever coalesce into a new form of intellectual army, an organized liberal arts alternative to academe?
This prospect is more plausible than it might at first seem. The rise of adjuncts may be seen largely as an objectionable management ploy to balance the budget, but regular faculty on their part may well respond to the new economics of education by quite a different mechanism.Based on intellectual development theory, this model describes seven stages for developing critical thinking and sound judgment through reflection.
King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. ().
Developing reflective judgment: Understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in . There is a growing need to measure students' growth and success in the classroom, especially with all the talk in the media about teacher evaluations. It's standard to measure student growth in the beginning and the end of the school year with standardized testing.
But, can these test scores really. Intellectual Traits. Through college courses, we hope that students will develop the intellectual traits that signify a well-educated person.
We help them to develop these traits by holding them (through their assignments) to the intellectual standards given. Naturally, this is . Both intellectual and academic development are focused on growing the mind.
The mind is but one part of a child. But one is more complete in terms of how it addresses the growth of the mind than the other. Intellectual development is grounded in inquiry. It is fueled by intrinsic motivation and curiosity. The early years, especially, should be spent playing, exploring, and developing the intellectual foundations that will allow children to acquire academic skills relatively easily later on.
An academic is a person who is on the faculty of a university or college. Wikipedia says An intellectual is a person who engages in critical study, thought, and reflection about the reality of society, and proposes solutions for the normative problems of society, and by such discourse in the public sphere gains authority from public opinion.